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Dermatologist

Dermatologists are physicians who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases related to the skin, nail and hair. Pediatric dermatologists are trained to cure any skin disorders in infants, children and young adults. Cosmetic dermatologists are trained specialists in beautifying the skin by removing scars and external marks on the skin either through medications or surgical procedures. Dermatologists have to complete medical school and then an internship period of one year followed by three years residency program in dermatology. After completion of the residency program, they take up training in sub-specialties of dermatology such as cosmetic dermatology, pediatric dermatology etc.


Task of a dermatologist

Dermatologists have the prime responsibility of providing care to the most exposed organ of the body, their task includes:


  • Skin reflects the conditions of the internal organs and any kind of disorder in any of these organs reflect on the skin, thus dermatologists have to have expertise in other medical specialties too.
  • They treat conditions such as ,skin cancer.
  • Overall conditions of the skin are improved by removing any superfluous growth, discolorations, damage caused due to exposure to sunlight etc.
  • They prescribe medications or ointments to treat problems of the skin.
  • Phototherapy along with application of ointment on the skin is suggested in extreme cases.

Latest techniques employed in the field of dermatology

With the newer techniques available for treatment in the field of dermatology it has become easier to treat skin related with ease.


  • Laser techniques are profoundly used to cure skin related problems.
  • Variety of creams and lotions provide solutions to many skin problems.
  • Modern surgical techniques help in correcting the disorders of the skin.

Behcet's Syndrome

Turkish dermatologist, Hulusi Behcet (1889-1948) recognized and reported in 1937 symptoms of Behcet's syndrome. A dental infection is attributed as the etiology of the disease. The American Behcet's Disease Foundation (ABDA) was founded in 1978 with the objective to provide support to patients and family as well the caregivers. In the absence of a cure or a single test to definitely determine Behcet's syndrome or Behcet's disease, educate about the syndrome to seek prompt medical attention for treatment.


Morbus Behcet or Silk Road disease is the other name for Behcet Syndrome or disease. Month of May is Behcet's Awareness month and May 20th is Behcet's awareness day. The focus is on spreading awareness and stress the importance of self-help.


Behcet's syndrome facts


  • Non-contagious
  • Exact cause is unknown
  • Genetic predisposition is high.
  • Symptoms are similar to other disease of the digestive tract, Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease
  • No single test to confirm diagnosis.
  • No cure available.
  • Disease affects different parts of the body.
  • Men and women are equally prone but more severe in men.
  • In the US, affects more women.
  • More prevalent in Middle East, Mediterranean and Eastern Asia.
  • Turkey has the highest prevalence.
  • Leading cause of blindness in Japan.
  • Most common among age group 20-30.
  • Treatment requires more than one specialist.
  • Continued, extensive research to explore possible genetic, bacterial and viral cause.
  • Research is on to identify medicines to better treat Behcet's disease.

Behcet's syndrome – Autoimmune disease

There are over 14, 000 auto-immune diseases and 7000 plus are rare. Behcet's syndrome is rare. Autoimmune disease occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy tissues. Though the clinical feature of auto immunity is absent, Behcet's syndrome is classified as an autoimmune disease as it has various aspects related to autoimmune disease. Enhanced inflammatory response (inflammation of blood vessels) is one such aspect. Significant number of women as compared to men are more likely to be affected by autoimmune disease. Estrogen predisposes women to autoimmune disease.


Behcet's syndrome symptoms

The inflammation of blood vessels, particularly veins causes symptoms in many parts of the body. Swelling, redness, heat and pain are select features of an inflammation. Though Behcet's disease can affect any part of the body, involvement of the neurological system is known as neuro-Behcet's disease and is rated the most disabling complication of the disease. Not that common, neuro-Behcet's disease affects about 10 per cent of people with Behcet's disease.


The most common symptom of Behcet's syndrome is the regular occurrence of ulcers in the mouth and genitals. The symptoms are an off-shoot of inflammation of the eyes, skin, arteries, veins, joints, nervous and digestive systems and heart. Symptoms can be mild or severe. Symptoms can be noticed between ages 20-30 years.

Mouth ulcers: May look like normal mouth ulcers but are more painful and numerous in number. Ulcers develop in the tongue, lips, and gums and inside of the cheeks. Even if the ulcers heal within a couple of weeks, they recur.


Genital ulcers: In men, though genital ulcers can appear anywhere in the groin area, including the penis, it is more common on the scrotum. In women, the ulcers appear on the cervix (neck of the womb), vulva or vagina. The ulcers are usually painful and scars appear around the area.

Skin lesions: Resembling acne, pustular skin lesions can appear anywhere on the body. Erythema nodosum results in red, painful, tender lumps that can measure one to five centimeters. It is the result of inflammation in the fatty layer of the skin. It can appear on the legs and ankles but can also appear on the face, neck or arms. Erythema nodosum related to other disease heal without scars but if related to Behcet's disease, leaves the skin totally discolored.


Inflammation of the eyes: Sudden inflammation of the eyes is a common symptom of Behcet's syndrome. A group of connected tissues, uveal tract is inside the eye. This uveal tract gets inflamed. Uveitis as it is named can cause symptoms such as, painful red eyes, blurred vision and floaters (dots that move across the field of vision). With a possibility of permanent visual impairment, it is best to seek medical attention for appropriate treatment without any delay.

Skin sensitivity: Pathergy is a condition signifying sensitivity of the skin, particularly injury or irritation. Even a needle prick can lead to developing a large red lump in a day or two.


Gastrointestinal symptoms: Inflammation of the stomach and intestines causes symptoms such as loss of appetite, stomach pain, indigestion, diarrhea, feeling sick and vomiting. There is a possibility of damage to the bowel resulting in bleeding. Blood in stools suggests inflammation of the internal lining of the bowel.


Blood clots: Inflammation of the veins can lead to formation of blood clots or thrombosis.

Joint pain: Joint pain in ankles, wrists, knees, elbows and hips is common. Inflammation in the joint can cause swelling, redness and tenderness.

Brain: Meninges is the coverage of the brain. Inflammation of the brain or tissue that covers the brain (meninges) causes symptoms like headache, neck stiffness along with high body temperature. In severe cases, it can damage the nervous tissue and lead to extreme weakness or impaired function of the body.

Aneurysms: Aneurysms are outpouchings of blood vessel walls due to inflammation of arteries in the lungs. This can lead to massive lung hemorrhage. Symptoms include pain in the limbs, severe headache, feeling dizzy, and breathlessness, coughing up blood, confusion and loss of consciousness.

Inflammation of the nervous system: Inflammation of the central nervous system occurs in 5%-10% of reported cases. This is regarded as the most serious symptom. Typical symptoms include headache, double vision, loss of balance, seizures, partial paralysis on one side of the body, personality changes. Any of these are noticeable within the first five years of recognizing initial symptoms.

General symptoms: Experiencing extreme fatigue to the extent that it interrupts with everyday routine is a general symptom of Behcet's syndrome.


Behcet's Syndrome Causes

The exact cause remains unclear. Though regarded as an autoimmune disorder, it is unclear what triggers the autoimmune disorder. Other possible association is genetics. Certain ethnic groups or a family member with the disease increases chances of developing Behcet's syndrome. People with gene HLA B51, variations in other genes like IL10, IL23R-IL2RB2 increases the risk of developing the disease considerably. However, the condition does not have a clear pattern of incidence.


Risk factors identified include:

Age: Children and older adults can develop the condition. But men and women in the age group of 20-3 are more likely to be affected.

Location: People from countries in the Middle East and Far East, including Turkey, Iran, Japan and China are more likely to develop Behcet's syndrome.

Sex: The disease is more severe in men.

Genes: Having certain genes increases the risk of developing the syndrome.


Behcet's Syndrome Diagnosis

In the absence of a single test to diagnose Behcet's syndrome, doctors look out for symptoms. Blood tests or other laboratory tests are recommended to rule out other disease or illness. The criteria include:

Mouth sores: Mouth sores are very common. Many disorders are related to mouth sores. If the mouth sores recur every three months in 12 months, it is regarded as criteria for evaluating the disease.

Doctors look for two additional signs.



Behcet's Syndrome - time to seek help

Recognizing symptoms and relating the symptoms to Behcet's disease is essential. Note down symptoms being experienced and add related information that affects normal routine. Seek appointment with a doctor. If medical attention is delayed, the condition can worsen and lead to losing eye sight or a stroke. At the meeting, divulge family history and inform about medications for any other health issue or supplements being taken.


You are most likely to seek specialist help. Rheumatologist for arthritis, joint pain etc, Ophthalmologist for eye problems, gynecologist or an urologist for genital sores, dermatologist for skin issues, Gastroenterologist for digestive difficulties or neurologist for symptoms related to CNS (central nervous system).


Behcet's Syndrome Treatment

There is no cure for Behcet's syndrome. The treatment is aimed at alleviating the symptoms, reducing the frequency and intensity, put the disease into remission and prevent serious complications. Medicines for controlling the individual symptoms are prescribed. Some medicines are prescribed with other medicines to suppress the activity of immune system. Some medicines can have side effects too.

For the skin: gels, creams and ointment that contain a Corticosteroid to reduce the inflammation.


For mouth sores: Special mouth washes with Corticosteroid to reduce the pain and associated discomfort.

For the eyes: Eye drops with Corticosteroid to relieve pain and redness in the eye.


Coping with Behcet's syndrome


  • Take ample rest in between flares.
  • Pay attention to diet and exercise.
  • Find support groups and connect.
  • Login to American Behcet's Disease Association.
  • Read message boards and engage in chat sessions.


Acanthosis Nigricans

The first documented case of Acanthosis Nigricans, a skin disorder was in 1889 in Germany. It occurs under the breast, in the folds of the neck, armpit, and groin. It may develop in other parts of the body also. It is thick, the texture is velvety and the color is dark brown. Before diagnosis, people with Acanthosis Nigricans consider the area as dirty which does not respond to normal body cleansing procedure.


Acanthosis Nigricans Symptoms

Only symptom is the change in skin which happens slowly and eventually is visible. Armpits, groin and neck folds, over the joints of the fingers and toes, these are the common areas. But in people with cancer, the skin change appears on the lips, palms, soles of the feet or other areas that are affected.


Acanthosis Nigricans Causes

A comparison of people of same weight indicates higher insulin level in people with Acanthosis Nigricans. Most possible contributory factor is eating too much of food that are high in starches and sugar which raises insulin levels. Possible causes are:


  • Associated with certain medical conditions
  • Congenital
  • Result of obesity (endocrine disorder)
  • Diabetes or pre diabetes
  • Ethnical (African descent people)
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Disorder of the pituitary gland
  • Hypothyroidism

Time to test

Affected areas may or may not itch. The skin change should prompt individuals to seek medical attention from a dermatologist.


Acanthosis Nigricans Diagnosis

For a dermatologist, a quick look at the skin would suffice. Subsequently, the dermatologist may ask for a blood test report and recommend other medical tests. These tests are to determine any medical condition. Acanthosis Nigricans is common in people with diabetes and in some cases it is a warning sign for pre-diabetes, thyroid disease and other conditions. The test result would determine treatment plan.


Treating Acanthosis Nigricans

The aim of the treatment is to get clear skin. Choice of treatment is related to underlying cause, if any. For example, if pre-diabetic, a diet to reduce insulin level is recommended. Adherence to recommended diet results in fading away of dark patches in the skin. If the underlying cause is thyroid, treating it provides desired results. Drug induced Acanthosis Nigricans fades away after avoiding the medicines. If Acanthosis Nigricans is related to underlying cancer, the condition may disappear after successful treatment of the condition.


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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: July 20, 2019