Tranexamic acid is used in the control of heavy bleeding or menorrhagia during periods. Since, this acid helps to stop blood clots from breaking down, bleeding is reduced. The lining in the womb clots and thus when you are having a period, it will reduce the heavy bleeding, though it will not stop the period altogether. By controlling heavy bleeding, it reduces the amount of blood loss with minor side effects. Tranexamic acid is an Antifibrinolytic medicine and is also called Cyklokapron which is available both in tablets and injection form.
Normally, when you bleed, your body forms clots to stop bleeding. In some, these blood clots break down and the bleeding continues and it is here that Tranexamic acid comes into play to stop the clots breaking down and thus reduce unwanted bleeding.
Conditions in which Tranexamic acid is used
Apart from heavy bleeding during periods or menorrhagia, Tranexamic acid is used in conditions such as unwanted or heavy bleeding post surgery, such as that on the prostrate, bladder and cervix, nosebleeds, bleeding inside the eye, during tooth extraction when bleeding is more than normal, and in conditions like Hemophilia and hereditary angioedema.
Precautions before consuming Tranexamic acid
Not all medicines suit all persons and with certain conditions, sometimes a medicine may only be used if extra precaution is taken. It is imperative to inform the medical practitioners before starting on Tranexamic acid:
Use of Tranexamic acid is not advised if:
Taking Tranexamic acid
It is essential to read the manufacturer's information leaflet before you start treatment. The tablets have to be taken exactly the way your medical practioner has prescribed, on the dosage and also the number of tablets to consume daily. The dose will vary from person to another. The tablets have to be swallowed drinking water - do not crush or chew them. You can instead crush the tablet and mix it with a small amount of soft food such as yogurt, honey or jam. In case of liquid medicine, the right amount using an oral syringe or medicine spoon has to be measured. You cannot use a kitchen spoon as it will not give the right amount. Tranexamic acid can be taken before or after food. The medicine will start working right away and will reduce the bleeding on the first day.
In case you have forgotten, better to go on with the next dose, and not to take the missed dose. Only take Tranexamic acid after periods have started. Not more than three doses can be taken (6 tablets) within 24 hours. It should not be taken for more than five days within any menstrual cycle. Thrice daily means, this should be once in the morning, once in the early afternoon and once in the evening. Ideally, these times are at least six hours apart, say, 8 am, 2 pm and 8 pm.
It is also important to keep regular appointment with the doctor. Tranexamic acid is taken for short duration only. In case you are undergoing any operation or dental treatment, remember to tell the doctor about taking Tranexamic acid.
Side effects of Tranexamic acid
Though not all experience these, some do suffer these side effects due to Tranexamic acid consumption:
If you are feeling sick, stick to simple meals, and avoid rich and spicy food. Also, it would be better to take tablets after meals. In case of diarrhea, take plenty of water to replace the lost fluids. Never take more than the prescribed dose and do not use outdated medicines. Seek medical attention right away if the side-effects persist.
Tranexamic acid precautions
It is imperative to keep medicines out of reach of children and pets; and also store in a cool place, away from direct sunlight. Tranexamic acid is stored at room temperature and should be kept away from heat, moisture and light. Do not store in the bathroom.
As this acid may cause dizziness, and it may worsen if it is taken with alcohol or certain other medicines, it is better to use it with caution. It is recommended not to drive until you know how you react to it. If your symptoms do not get better after two menstrual cycles and instead get worse, it is better to stop the acid and instead check with the doctor.
The risk of heart attack, stroke, or other blood clots may increase with Tranexamic acid use with hormonal birth control pills. This risk is even greater if you are overweight, or a smoker and are older than the age of 35. Tranexamic acid should be used with utmost caution in children younger than 18 as well as the elderly.
When an artery in the lungs gets blocked, it is referred to as a medical condition of Pulmonary embolism. This condition can be life threatening. Often deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can lead to pulmonary embolism. The blood clots may originate in any other part of the body such as the arm, pelvis or legs. These clots travel through the bloodstream and enter the pulmonary arteries. Recent surgery or injury can lead to a blood clots. Persons with heart disease or those on estrogen therapy are at increased risk of pulmonary embolism. Typical symptoms experienced by those suffering from pulmonary embolism are chest pain, sudden shortness of breath and rapid heartbeat. A patient might have wheezing and weak pulse. The symptoms of pulmonary embolism depend on the extent and size of clots. Embolus can also be the result of fat from the bone marrow that has escaped into the bloodstream. It can also occur due to air bubbles formed during intravenous infusion or surgery. While large emboli cause considerable distress such as chest pain, smaller ones cause shortness of breath. Patients suffering from pulmonary embolism tend to have cough that produces sputum. There may be bluish discoloration on the skin and pain in the legs. Fainting spells or seizures might occur due to sudden decrease in oxygen-rich blood to the brain and other organs. Bluish tint on the skin (cyanosis) is observed when one or more large pulmonary arteries are obstructed.
Diagnostic procedures to detect pulmonary embolism:
One of the initial steps to help a person suffering from pulmonary embolism is administration of oxygen and analgesics. Oxygen is administered through a nasal cannulae or face mask. Blood clots are treated with anticoagulant drugs like heparin or warfarin. But the duration and dosage of anticoagulants needs to be monitored so that it does not result in bleeding in other body organs. Thrombolysis is a procedure whereby Thrombolytic agents (clot-dissolving agents) are injected into the bloodstream to dissolve existing blood clots. Surgery (Pulmonary embolectomy) is often resorted to for removal of clots.
Doctors prescribe medicines for varied reasons, to cure an ailment, to prevent or stop an infection, to ease symptoms, to reduce risks etc. But if there is one particular group of medicines where there is a need for rigorous monitoring regime when taken, it is blood thinners. Not without a reason. Though approved by the FDA, if not handled properly, prolonged use of blood thinners can be unsafe.
Need for Blood thinners
Blood thinners reduce the ability of the blood to clot. Blood thinners belong to a class of drugs called anticoagulants. Immediately after an injury, a scrape or a cut, the blood coagulates and seals the wound, forming a scab to protect from infection. The blood clots formed will be naturally dissolved in the body after the injury is healed. Here blood clotting is a saver and is essential for the body.
The mechanism is regarded as dangerous when blood clots form in the blood stream without an obvious injury and if the blood clot fails to dissolve naturally after the injury heals. The situation poses great risks as it can block circulation; the blood clot can travel to the arteries or veins in the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs and limbs. This in turn can lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart attack, stroke, damage body's organs and in extreme cases result in loss of life.
An updated (February 2014) American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline recommends people with an irregular heartbeat to take blood thinners to reduce the risk of stroke. As per doctor's prescription, every year around 2 million people take blood thinner medications every day. It is strongly recommended that blood thinner be taken only under medical supervision.
New vs. old blood thinners
Warfarin was introduced sixty years ago. It is regarded as the oldest anticoagulant blood thinner medication. For decades, Warfarin was the only blood thinner available to lower risks of stroke. There are new additions. A recent study has showed that new blood thinners might be more effective than older medications.
Detailed studies comparing Warfarin with the new addition state the following:
Types of blood thinners
It is chemical formulations that contribute to preventing clotting in various ways. Broadly blood thinner medications are classified into anticoagulant and anti platelet blood thinners.
Anticoagulant blood thinners
Anticoagulant blood thinner medications help decrease the tendency of blood clot formation. There are two ways to decrease the formation of blood clots in the body. Anticoagulants can interfere with platelets or block the body's production of clotting substances. Anticoagulant blood thinners are prescribed for people who have had a condition caused by a blood clot or are at risk of developing one.
Anticoagulant blood thinners are usually given by mouth. In some cases anticoagulants are given intravenously or by injecting them just under the skin (subcutaneously).
Warfarin: Warfarin is the generic drug. In the US, Warfarin is sold under the brand names Coumadin and Jantoven. Doctors prescribe Warfarin for two reasons, to prevent the formation of harmful blood clots or treat an existing blood clot. Some conditions for which Warfarin is prescribed include:
Patients prescribed Warfarin ought to know how Warfarin works. Knowing helps limit the intake of vitamin K rich foods like dark green vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, turnip greens, green peas etc. At any time, the blood needs certain proteins to clot. These proteins are made in the liver. To enable the liver in the process, Vitamin K is required.
When Warfarin is administered, it reduces the liver's ability to use Vitamin K. Warfarin and Vitamin K work against each other. Thus, the formation of blood clot becomes harder. The interaction between Warfarin and Vitamin K explains the need to partake a diet that is constant in Vitamin K while on Warfarin. The dosage of Warfarin may vary from person to person. A blood test may be recommended to determine the dosage. This blood test, Prothrombin Time or International Normalized Ratio is required to monitor the body's response to Warfarin. Based on test results, Warfarin dose will be determined.
Side effects of Warfarin
Warfarin or Heparin, a common side effect of any anticoagulant medication is the risk of excessive bleeding. As these medicines prolong or lengthen or makes blood clot formation harder, it increases the time for formation of blood clots. If the time taken is too long, there is a possibility of excessive bleeding. There are other symptoms to look out for which are more common with Warfarin. Patients on Warfarin should immediately seek medical attention for any these common Warfarin side effects.
Women who take Warfarin should contact health care provider if they experience heavy or increased bleeding during menstruation or any other bleeding from the vagina.
Irrespective of the gender, some patients may experience rashes, diarrhea, nausea, hair loss while on Warfarin. These are not common side effects but are termed as additional side effects of Warfarin.
Doctors do advice patients to seek help if the patient is involved in a major accident, experiences a significant blow to the head and finds it difficult to stop bleeding, if any. As Warfarin can interact with many other medicines, so do inform the doctor about all the medications being taken.
Warfarin during pregnancy: Warfarin should be avoided during pregnancy and women with certain health conditions like high blood pressure, ulcer in the digestive tract should not take Warfarin as it can lead to severe health complications.
Long terms risks of using Warfarin: Extensive research on prolonged use of Warfarin suggests that the risk increases with age. The patient is at risk of serious or even fatal bleeding including internal bleeding. In particular the risks are:
Heparin: Heparin is the generic name. In US, Heparin is available under the brand names Lipohepin, liquaemin and Panheparin. Heparin decreases the clotting ability of the blood and also prevents existing clots from getting larger. Thereby, the normal body systems dissolve the clots that are already formed. Heparin is usually administered as an injection. Heparin can be injected subcutaneously or as an intravenous infusion. The advantage of IV is that it can be turned off quickly for safety reasons. Heparin is prescribed for conditions such as:
It helps to know how heparin works. Heparin ensures that an anti-clotting protein which is present in the body works better, thus decreasing the clotting ability of the blood.
Available in different strengths, the doctor must prescribe the strength depending on the purpose for which it is prescribed. During the course of treatment, the doctor may increase or decrease the dosage.
Side effects of heparin
A unique possible side effect of Heparin is that several weeks after stopping the injection, bleeding episodes may occur. If the patient notices bruising or unusual bleeding such as a nosebleed, blood in the urine or stools, black or tarry stools or any other bleeding that doesn't cease, contact your healthcare provider.
Besides the common side effects of anticoagulant medications, Heparin's other side effects are visible at that point where the solution is injected.
Herparin during pregnancy: FDA category for Heparin is C meaning there isn't established information that proves whether Heparin affects the fetus. It is best for pregnant women as well as breast-feeding mothers to use Heparin only if the medicine is prescribed by the doctor.
Long term risks of using Heparin
Prolonged use of Heparin particularly in the elderly may cause osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones become weak and may break easily.
Antiplatelet blood thinners
Antiplatelet blood thinner medications work to prevent the platelets (small cells in the blood) from clumping together to form a blood clot. This happens by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, a chemical that signals other platelets to come together. By inhibiting the production of thromboxane, platelets cease to come together to form the blood clot.
Thromboxane's role is helpful for a normal healthy individual who has suffered a wound. It acts as a self-sealing material. But, in the case of a stroke survivor, thromboxane's ability to bind and form a blood clot is potentially life-threatening. Hence, the need to use an antiplatelet blood thinner which are usually available in the form of tablets only.
Doctors prescribe antiplatelet Aspirin to patients who have had a stroke or TIA (transient ischemic attack) so as to reduce the risk of having another stroke. This is possible with Aspirin as it interferes with the blood's clotting action. The dosage varies from patient to patient and is largely guided by the patient's health condition.
Though Aspirin is available OTC (over the counter), doctors recommend low doses of Aspirin for patients with the following medical history.
Aspirin is prescribed to patients who are considered to be at risk of having heart attack or stroke. Anyone with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetic and smoke aggressively are regarded to be at risk of having heart attack or stroke.
Side effect of Aspirin
Most common side effect of taking low doses of Aspirin (100 mg dose) is heartburn and stomach upset. Seldom has there been a very serious side effect related to taking Aspirin as a blood thinner medication. However it is best to be aware of possible serious side effects such as bruising/bleeding, difficulty hearing, ringing in the ears, and change in urine amount, persistent or severe nausea /vomiting, unexplained tiredness, dizziness, dark urine, yellowing of eyes or skin.
Aspirin during pregnancy
The FDA has not assigned formally a pregnancy category. Aspirin is not recommended for use during pregnancy and while breast-feeding as it excretes into breast milk in small amounts.
Other antiplatelet blood thinners
Besides Aspirin, other antiplatelet medicines that are prescribed to prevent the platelets from sticking together include the following. Doctors prescribe a specific antiplatelet blood thinner taking into account the specific health condition and relative effectiveness of the blood thinner medicine. New drugs are continually added to the list with FDA approval.
Long term risks of using Aspirin
Daily use of aspirin can have serious side effects including internal bleeding. Prolonged use of aspirin at higher doses (> 500 mg) can cause stomach ulcers, and can also prolonged bleeding.
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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: April 2, 2020