An ophthalmologist combines the diagnostic skills of a clinician, the therapeutic skills of a physician, technical skills of a micro surgeon and psychiatric skills in understanding the patient's psychology in one. Since the eye is structured in such a way that its components are transparent, the ophthalmologist is able to observe directly and read the abnormalities in a manner which is not possible for any other parts of the human body.
Professional qualifications for an ophthalmologist
Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who have completed medical school and four years training schedule in ophthalmology after medical school. An ophthalmologist can be a medical doctor with an M.D. degree in ophthalmology or doctors of osteopathy D.O. In the US, four years of training after medical school is a must. The first year is an internship and then three years of training in ophthalmology in a residency program approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. An ophthalmologist may develop expertise in a sub-specialty such as:
Services rendered by an ophthalmologist
By convention, an ophthalmologist specializes in the medical and surgical care of the eyes. The ophthalmologist aids in prevention of eye diseases and injury to the visual system. The full spectrum of care rendered by an ophthalmologist includes:
An ophthalmologist often performs surgery to prevent or improve vision related conditions. A variety of lasers are used nowadays to perform out-patient procedures which previously required admission to hospital. Also tremendous improvements in microsurgical instrumentation have led to development of operations not considered possible a decade ago. An increasing number of such surgeries are being performed by local anesthesia. The surgical work of a general ophthalmologist includes:
Some common emergency of the eye that require immediate intervention by an ophthalmologist are:
A medical ophthalmologist generally does not perform surgery. The sphere of interest embraces:
Third degree burns
Every layer of the skin is involved in third-degree burns. Even after the treatment, only the edges heal because they are so deep. If skin grafting is not carried out, in the long run the burned area will be covered with scars. Affecting the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, third-degree burns cause charring of the skin. The skin appears white and translucent and you can see coagulated vessels just beneath the skin surface. Even though the burned areas may be numb, there may be some pain. This may be due to associated with it. Since the skin tissue and the structures are destroyed, healing from third-degree burns is very slow. New skin will not grow in this area since the epidermis and hair follicles are destroyed.
Third degree burns occur when clothing coming into contact with fire or corrosive chemicals. Accidental contact with hot objects, flames or electricity can cause third degree burns. The skin turns white or it may turn black or brown and leathery. Though little pain may be experienced in the burned area because nerve endings have been destroyed, pain will be more in the surrounding areas. Some of the other symptoms that are noticed include redness, peeling skin, shock and pale clammy skin associated with weakness, bluish lips and nails.
Medical treatment is necessary for all third-degree burns. If you notice a person's clothes burning ask him or her not to run in panic. It will aggravate the flames and they may rise even up to the person's face. With the help of a blanket, jacket or rug you can suppress the flames all along rolling the person on the ground. If the clothing has stuck to the burn do not try to remove it. Applying ice water, lotions, sprays, ointments or home remedies is not advisable.
Since swelling is a possibility, remove jewelry and tight clothing from the burned. In order to bring the body temperature back to normal, apply cold moist cloths for brief periods or immerse the burned area in cold water. Care should be taken for not to leave the burned area in cold water too long for it will result in cooling down the body very much. There may be signs of shock such as rapid or faint pulse, nausea and vomiting and rapid and shallow breathing. Call for medical help if the person undergoes shock. Unless it is warranted do not move the person. In case vomiting occurs, the person should be asked to lye on their side to prevent choking. Keep the feet raised unless the person has breathing problems. In order to conserve body heat, cover the person with a blanket. You can give small sips of water or clear juice, if the person remains conscious and if the medical help may require some time to reach, provided there is no vomiting. Moistening the lips will do if the person is in shock since drinking more water will induce vomiting. Never give alcohol to a person who is in shock.
Chemical burns: Clothing and jewelry on which the chemical has spilled should be removed. With running water, wash out liquid chemicals for 15 to 20 minutes avoiding splashing the chemical in the eyes. If large amounts of water are not available immediately, clear dry chemicals away from the skin since some chemicals get activated by small quantity of water. A dry and loose bandage can be given to cover the burn.
Electric burns: A health care provider should be called for to examine any electrical burn. Though an electrical burn may seem to cause little damage, because it extends deeply into the tissues underneath the skin the damage may be more. For many hours the damage may not surface. The burned area may be covered with a dry, non-fluffy loose bandage. Applying any ointment or other substances should be strictly avoided.
Hospitalization may be required for a few days or for several weeks for third-degree burns and scars. Depending on the severity of the burns, several operations by a medical plastic surgeon may be required to get rid of the scars. Treatment at a burn center is usually necessary for wide spread burns.
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Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: November 15, 2019