Cardiac arrhythmia or Cardiac dysrhythmia refers to a disturbance of the heart rhythm. When the regular heart rhythm is disturbed, it can lead to symptoms that can range from mild to life-threatening. The heart may have slower beats or there may be a blockage of the electrical pathway of the heart. One of the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation. This occurs in older persons when the upper atrial chambers of the heart do not pump correctly. This can lead to blood clots. Heart failure or electrolyte imbalance can bring on cardiac arrhythmia.
Tachycardia or Tachydysrhythmia is a condition where there is rapid heartbeat due to inefficiency in the blood circulation. Tachycardia is a condition where the heart rhythm is more than 100 beats/minute. This can happen due to stress, hyperthyroidism or alcohol. On the other hand, Bradycardia or bradyarrhythmia is a condition where the heart rhythm is less than 60 beats/min. A ventricular arrhythmia can be life-threatening. This happens when there is ventricular fibrillation. It is essential to treat this condition and restore the rhythm within minutes to prevent heart damage and death. Allergic reactions can trigger arrhythmia.
Some persons suffering from cardiac arrhythmia notice symptoms such as dizziness, fainting and lightheadedness. There may be a fluttering or pounding sensation in the chest. Anti arrhythmic agents such as amiodarone and sotalol are prescribed to maintain the normal rhythm of the heart. Amiodarone is effective atrial flutter and to establish heart's normal rhythm.
In cases of atrial fibrillation, Warfarin is used to prevent blood clots. Medication for cardiac dysrhythmia includes beta blockers such as metoprolol and atenolol to reduce the heart rhythm. An electronic cardiac pacemaker may be implanted to regulate the heart beat.
Andersen Tawil Syndrome
Andersen Tawil syndrome or ATS is a rare disease characterized by three distinct features that include: periodic paralysis or episodes of muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmia and distinct facial and skeletal features. However all the three features may not be present in a single patient. Most ATS cases are caused by a mutation in the KCNJ2 gene; other cases result from unknown causes. KCNJ2 gene forms a channel that is responsible for transporting potassium ions into muscle cells. The movement of these ions is essential for maintaining the normal function of muscles. KCNJ2 gene mutations disrupt the structure of the potassium ions and leads to periodic paralysis and irregular heart rhythm.
Periodic paralysis: Anderson Tawil syndrome patients may experience episodes of flaccid paralysis. The lower and the upper limbs normally get affected and the paralysis may remain for short duration or continue for days. The severity and frequency varies from person to person and from episode to episode.
Heart arrhythmia: Anderson Tawil syndrome patients typically present with long QT interval, a disorder of the heart's electrical activity. It can cause sudden, uncontrollable, dangerous arrhythmia in response to exercise or stress.
Distinct Facial or skeletal features: Patients with ATS commonly develop physical abnormalities such as a small lower jaw, dental abnormalities, widely spaced eyes, short stature and curvature of the spine.
Diagnosis and treatment
Examining the clinical features, serum test to assess potassium levels, electrocardiogram to test the heart's electric activity and molecular genetic testing together help in establishing the diagnosis of Anderson Tawil syndrome.
There are no standard protocols laid out for treating ATS because of the rarity of the condition. Treatment of the Anderson Tawil syndrome depends upon the symptoms of the patient. If the patient is suffering from potassium sensitive periodic paralysis, potassium supplements are prescribed to rectify the levels.
However periodic paralysis caused by higher potassium levels resolve on their own in a short while. Of late, drugs known as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are being used successfully to treat periodic paralysis in individuals with Andersen-Tawil syndrome. Cardiac arrhythmia is normally treated with beta adrenergic blockers and more complicated cases might need pacemakers and implantable defibrillator to prevent sudden cardiac deaths.
The heart works on the natural electrical impulses by the cardiac conduction system. An electronic pacemaker is surgically implanted in some patients suffering from cardiac arrhythmia to regulate the heart rhythm. This is done with electrical impulses generated by the pacemaker. The pacemaker system is made up of a battery pack and a couple of thin wires. The small generator is implanted under the skin. This is connected to the heart through tiny wires. The pacemaker ensures regular impulses to the heart so that they appear just like the natural pacemaker of the heart.
Demand pacemakers are those that are used only when needed. They have sensors that that kick off their pacemaker when the heart rhythm is slower than the required rate. Rate-responsive cardiac pacemakers automatically regulate the heart beat according to the body's need. It is imperative to check the functioning of the pacemaker regularly. The doctor will also need to detect any signs of the batteries wearing off. Certain medications, electrical device or electromagnetic noise can interfere with the working of the cardiac pacemaker. Handheld metal detectors, cellular phones and MRI can affect the pacemaker.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: July 20, 2019