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Paralysis

Paralysis is a neurological disorder which is associated with the impairment of voluntary functions of the muscles. The important cause for paralysis is metabolic disorders of the neuromuscular functionalities. The attack of paralysis in the body is categorized into various types such as paraplegia (lower body), hemiplegic (one side of the body) and quadriplegia which is localized only to the legs. The motor and sensory activities are impaired at respective regions where the onset of paralysis takes place.


Causes of paralysis

The onset of paralysis has many predisposing factors and medical conditions. Thorough understanding and evaluation of these conditions paves the way for comprehensive diagnosis and treatment.

Ischemic cerebral stroke: Stroke is one of the fatal causes for paralysis. It happens because of the lack of blood supply to the cerebral region. The neuromuscular junctions are subjected to damage because of oxygen deficiency and hence the nerve cells associated with the efferent and afferent functions are impaired.


Trauma: Injuries to the head and spinal cord result in blood vessel and neural cell damage. In some cases paralysis associated with trauma can be localized and affects one region of the body. This phenomenon depends upon the site of the head injury and the peripheral neuromuscular fibre associations.

Infections and other causes: Paralytic occurrences can happen in patients who have a history of meningitis and abscesses present in the brain because of bacterial infections. Other causes of paralysis include Guillian Barre syndrome, cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis.


Diagnosis and treatment

The definitive diagnosis of paralysis depends upon the source of its onset and progression. Paralysis neuromuscular dysfunction for which many causes are possible. Pathologically, paralytic sites indicate appearances of tissue necrosis caused because of gangrene associated hypoxia and ischemia. Cellular pathology often indicates dead cells and tissue debris because of necrosis. Surgical intervention is recommended in order to remove the necrotic tissue present in the regions like central nervous system.

Diagnostic interventions to paralysis include radiological examinations of the necrotic sites, nerve conduction studies in order to understand the myogenic and neurogenic abnormalities along with sensory and motor functions of a respective region. If malignancies are suspected, fine needle aspiration, cytology and biopsy tests are recommended to understand cellular pathology.


Treat of paralysis is mostly therapeutic in origin. It is necessary to identify the cause of the paralytic disease and to treat it appropriately with antimicrobial drugs in case of infections. Physiotherapy is advised to facilitate motor and sensory functions.

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: December 13, 2019