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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

Coronaviruses (CoV) belong to the family of virulent viruses which cause severe respiratory disease - from common cold to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A new type novel Coronavirus (nCoV) strain has been linked to the outbreak from 2019 which has not been identified in humans.

Epidemic Origin: It has been established from the available data that CoronoVirus is zoonotic (transmitted between animals and humans) . There are 7 strains of Viruses which cause respiratory disease. The common cold causing Viruses belong to the 4 strains while 2 others (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) result in the deadly infections - SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). The last strain in this group causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The disease it causes is known as Covid-19, so named after the year it started to manifest.

The SARS-CoV transmuted from bats to Civet cats and then to humans in China, while the MERS-CoV mutated from dromedary camels (Arabian camels) to humans in middle east.
As of now, the source of the Sars-CoV-2 has not been identified except that it originated in Wuhan, China.

Symptoms: it is not necessary for the patient to develop all symptoms immediately. Some may be ill for some time and then lapse into pneumonia. Or they may some symptoms initially and then become carriers themselves as they may not show debilitative symptoms further on.

  • 1. Fever
  • 2. Cough
  • 3. Breathing difficulties
  • 4. Shortness of breath
  • 5. body ache

The prognosis is grim for patients over 80 years of age. A study in China shows that the mortality rate for this group of patients is 14.8 % whereas for the overall population the mortality rate is 2.3 %. The lower respiratory tract infection may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, organ failure and death.

Treatment: As it is a viral infection, there is no direct medication targeted at this Virus. Other than normal care, there is very little option available to treat the disease. Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat secondary infection if any.
It is better to prevent the infection in the first place.


Coronavirus disease prevention

Prevention: Primarily the Virus spreads through droplets and body fluids. Avoid any crowded area if possible. Avoid contact with anyone who shows symptoms of respiratory illness - cough, sneeze and running nose. Allow at least 3 feet of space between you and the infected person. Wash your hands with soap thoroughly. Remember the germicide in the soap takes at least 30 seconds to work. So wash your hands for at least 30-45 seconds and then rinse.

Use alcohol based hand sanitizer to disinfect your hands before you touch your face/eyes/nose/mouth. Cook your food including meat at high heat thoroughly. Wash your hands and tools/implements in the kitchen well. Always use different cutting board and knife for vegetables and meat. Do not use the same cutting board or knife which was used to cut raw meat to cut cooked food.

Your pets - dogs and cats are safe as long as they remain indoors or move in restricted area. It has not been established that normal pets pose any threat unless you are in a severely affected area. Use the standard precaution of washing your hands thoroughly after you come in contact with your pets.

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Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: May 29, 2020