TargetWoman Condensed Health Information



Cat Behavior

Cats are solitary predators unlike dogs which are pack or herd animals.In consequence, Cats don't treat humans as authority figures in the same manner the dogs do. A cat's visual cortex contains more neurons than the equivalent area of a human brain. Typically a cat's brain weighs about 30 gm which is just under 1 percent of its total body weight. Compare this to a human brain which is 2 % of the body weight or to a dog which is 1.2 %. However, the cortex of the cat's brain has high Cortical folding which significantly increases the amount of the cerebral cortex. As a result, a cat has a well developed area of the brain responsible for interpreting sensory information. It can use its paws almost like humans. Cat's night vision is exceptional and their binocular vision is attuned to see in depth and to judge distances accurately. Their night vision is further enhanced by a layer behind the retina called as tapetum lucidum which is the reason why a cat's eyes shine bright golden or green disk when struck by a light. Their eyes detect motion better than actual sharp details. With large eyes it takes more time to focus sharp.

Most cat bites occur because of fear on the cat’s part or a phenomenon known as petting-induced aggression. Petting induced aggression is a behavior in which a cat - usually younger cats that has been apparently enjoying contact with a human suddenly turns on the human and bites. In elderly cats, the aggression may have been induced by pain due to pressure on arthritic joints.

Inflammation is probably the most common sign of infection from an animal bite. The skin around the wound may turn red and warm and over a period of time the wound may exude pus. Nearby lymph glands may become swollen. If not treated in time, complications may arise when the infection spreads deep or to the blood stream. Live disease causing bacteria within the bloodstream or in the tissues may cause major complications further away from the wound site. Such complications include meningitis, brain abscesses, pneumonia, lung abscesses and heart infections which can be fatal at times.

Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella Henselae), previously known as Rochalimaeaquintana, a type of bacteria in cat saliva. Infection may occur with a bite or a scratch. As per CDC, in USA alone there are 22000 reported cases. The Cat scratch disease is not normally severe in people with healthy immune systems. However, it can become sever in immunocompromised individuals - acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or those undergoing chemotherapy.

Prevention: Cat bites can easily be avoided by learning about a cat’s body language and recognizing the signs of impending aggression. Look out for signs such as:

  • dilating pupils
  • a low growl
  • stiffening of the body
  • wagging/flicking tail - increasing frequency denotes increasing anger
  • twitching of the tail
  • flattening the ears backward against the head
Cat scratch disease

Warning Stance: When a cat stands with his rump raised or back arched, it feels threatened and it is a warning that it is about to strike/attack. Sometimes the hair on its body may also be raised. A cat's tail is probably the most significant signal:

Tail SignalInterpretation
Flicking from side to sideIrritated
Curved like an “N” or low to the ground and flickingFeeling aggressive
Strong lashing movementsDon't mess with me! Will attack at the first chance
Arched over the backAll right! I am going to attack now. You asked for it
Hair fluffed out and standing on end OH ! I am anxious and threatened now
Horizontal or slightly low to the floor All is well
Erect or with a curl at the tipI feel friendly now. How are you doing ?
Pointing straight up and vibrating Quivering with joy and excitement
Tucked between the legsI am submissive now. Please don't hurt me

A healthy cat tends to be friendly. An ailing cat can be aggressive or scratch you unintentionally.
Vital signs of Cats

  • body temperature : 100.5 - 102.5°F (38 - 39°C).
  • Pulse rate: 110 - 180 beats per minute
  • Respirations : 20 - 30 per minute
  • Time for gum to regain pink color after being blanched by gentle pressure with finger(Capillary refill time): < 2 seconds

Cat Scratch Disease

Cat scratch disease (CSD), also called Cat Scratch Fever, is a bacterial infection passed on to people from cats that are infected with Bartonella henselae bacteria, one of the most common bacteria in the world. The Bartonella genus encompasses at least 11 species out of which 4 cause infections in human. They are responsbile for diseases such as bacillary Angiomatosis.

When the cat infected with Bartonella henselae bacteria scratches or bites the person or saliva of an infected cat enters an open sore or wound of the person, the bacteria gets transmitted causing cat scratch disease. Cats are believed to contract these bacteria from infected fleas and nearly 40 percent of cats carry the bacteria at some time in their life span. When compared to adult cats, kittens are more prone to carry the bacteria and transmit the disease. Cat's sharp teeth result in deep puncture wounds which can get serious infections if left untreated.


Symptoms

The first symptoms of cat scratch disease surface after three to 14 days of coming into contact with the infected cat. Cat scratch disease can cause serious symptoms in people with impaired immune system such as cancer patients and HIV patients. The infection may be fatal and lead to inflammation of brain, spleen, liver, lungs, and bone marrow. Hence such cases require immediate medical attention and early treatment in case of suspicion.


  • Papular lesion of the skin, at the site of the injury
  • Swelling of lymph nodes near the bite. Most often lymph nodes located under arms, groin or neck are affected.
  • Tired feeling
  • Headaches
  • Low-grade fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

Diagnosis

It is difficult to establish the diagnosis of cat scratch disease as causative bacteria cannot be easily cultured from human lymph node samples. Therefore diagnosis is done based on the history of contact with a cat and the presence of a scratch or primary lesion of the skin, eye or mucous membrane. Serological test and epidemiological, histological findings are taken into consideration before conforming the diagnosis.


Treatment

Cat scratch disease is self limiting and usually regresses over few weeks. The condition does not require antibiotic treatment unless the patient is suffering from weakened immune system. Analgesics along with local heat application are recommended to relieve the pain of enlarged lymph nodes.


Prevention

Cat scratch disease is not contagious from person to person. The bacteria is transmitted only by the scratch or bite of an infected cat, most often kitten. Keep your pet cats free of fleas. Avoid rough play with the cats. Scratches from cat, if any, should be washed immediately and cats should not be allowed to lick open wounds.



CAT scan

Computed Axial Tomography (CAT scan) is a process of using computers to generate three dimensional images from a flat two dimensional X rays pictures through the 'slice' technique. Aided by computer, cross-sectional views are generated and if needed three dimensional images of the internal organs and structures of the body. In CAT scan the body is seen in 'slices' from the skin to the central part of the body. When all the levels (slices) are added together, a three dimensional picture of an organ is obtained. Together the cross sections give a very accurate picture of where the tumor is and how big or small it is. They also show how close the major body organs are to the area that needs to be treated or operated upon. A CAT scan can be used to define both the normal and abnormal structures the body. It also helps as an accurate guide in placement of instruments and treatments for undergoing procedures.


  • The head is examined for trauma injuries, such as blood clots or skull fractures.
  • Spine is studied for any infections and to check the anatomy of intervertebral discs and spinal cord.
  • Density of the bone in evaluating osteoporosis is also accurately measured by CAT scan.
  • CAT scans are used in the chest to identify tumors, cysts or infections.
  • CAT scans of the abdomen are helpful in defining body organ anatomy, including visualizing liver, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen, aorta, kidneys, uterus and ovaries. Also CAT scans help to verify the presence or absence of tumors, infection, abnormal anatomy or changes in the body from trauma.
  • CAT scans help to guide the radiologist in performing certain procedures such as biopsyand suspected cancers, removal of internal fluids for various tests.

Many of the procedures in CAT scan are minimally invasive. CAT scan is very low risk procedure. The amount of radiation in CAT scan is very minimal. Unlike MRI, CT scans can be done even if the patient has a pace maker or an internal cardioverter defibrillator devices implanted into the chest to help regulate the heart beat. CAT scan may pose a potential risk to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy. Sometimes in contrast studies using iodine-based, there may be itching, a rash, hives or a feeling of warmth throughout the body. But these reactions tend to go away quickly. Very rarely does a more serious reaction occur during intravenous contrast studies. This anaphylactic reaction results in severe hives and/or difficulty in breathing.


Benefits of CAT Scan


  • Diagnose muscle and bone disorders such as bone tumors and fractures
  • Pinpoint the location of tumor, infection and blood clot
  • Guide certain procedures in surgery
  • Detect and monitor diseases such as cancer or heart disease
  • Detect internal injuries and internal bleeding.
Tags: #Cat Behavior #Cat Scratch Disease #CAT scan
Here is how it works

Enter your health or medical queries in our Artificial Intelligence powered Application here. Our Natural Language Navigational engine knows that words form only the outer superficial layer. The real meaning of the words are deduced from the collection of words, their proximity to each other and the context.

Check all your health queries

Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Popular Topics
Free Health App
Free Android Health App Free WebApp for iPhones


Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: July 10, 2020