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Barium Swallow Test

Barium sulfate is a popular compound used in the diagnostic investigation of abnormalities of internal organs. This test is used to investigate issues of upper gastrointestinal tract. Most cases in this diagnostic category include abnormalities associated with esophagus and the digestive system. Barium swallowing procedure determines the presence of anatomical abnormalities such as narrowing of the esophagus, abnormal growths such as cancer, tumors, polyps and also for the presence of foreign objects as a result of ingestion. Barium swallow test also helps in the identification of conditions such as hiatal hernia. In this condition, the upper portion of the stomach protrudes into the chest cavity through the diaphragm opening called esophageal hiatus.


Preparation for Barium swallow test

Since barium swallow is a radiological procedure, patients are usually advised not to take any food the night before the test. This enables the radiologist to analyze and discover underlying abnormalities in the gastro intestinal tract. Presence of food particles can mask the diagnosis to a great extent. The radiologist may make general enquiry to ensure that the patient is not pregnant or on insulin. Before the test is performed, the patient is advised to drink a milky liquid. This liquid contains barium sulfate. Many patients complain about the chalky taste of this liquid.


In some cases, it induces nausea. In addition to the barium sulfate liquid, the patient is also advised to take few pills that produce bubbles or effervescence. The effervescence induced by the pills is necessary to facilitate the air in to the stomach to view the structures carefully. Patients are advised not to belch although the procedure induces it. This enables the radiologist to identify the underlying disorders better. The risks associated with barium swallow test are minimal. One of the most common side effects of this test is constipation. Other conditions include anaphylactic reactions and aspiration in which the ingested barium enters the windpipe. The entire procedure may last around 30 minutes. Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium swallow.


Barium enema

Barium enema is advised for patients who experience difficulties in bowel movements and also associated conditions such as weight loss and anemia. Barium sulfate is administered through the anus by using a tube to investigate the bowel disorders in the patient. This radiological examination gives a complete picture of the bowel beginning from the colon to the large intestine. Abnormalities such as colon cancer, polyps, peptic ulcer disease, GERD (Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease), achalasia, strictures and tumors can be identified with this method. Drugs such as buscopan are given to the patients to relax the bowel.


Patients are advised not consume any solid foods or milk products as it may hinder the diagnosis. The recommended diet for the patients undergoing this test is usually clear fluids and juices. Although the test has minimal side effects, many patients experience the inconvenience of cramping during the procedure. The intensity of cramping varies from person to person. Bowel relaxation drugs are administered to prevent unprecedented events during the procedure. During the procedure, patients often experience the urge to defecate which has to be controlled in order to obtain proper diagnosis of the bowel. One of the significant risk factors associated with this procedure is the leakage of barium from previously perforated colon. The side effects of the leaking barium from the colon can be fatal. Hence, thorough preparation is done before the test to ensure and minimize the risk factors. Pregnant women are not advised to do this procedure. After this test, patients are asked to drink extra fluids and water to relieve the bowels of the barium.

Barium Swallow

Barium Swallow or Upper GI series is a radiological test that allows visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small intestine. Nothing should be eaten for about 6 hours prior to the test. Typically, double contrast barium swallow is used. The patient is made to swallow a barium drink after swallowing an effervescent agent. The barium creates a temporary coating on the lining of the upper GI tract. Then he is asked to stand and lie in different positions to spread the liquid. An x-ray machine then takes pictures. Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium swallow.

After this test, patients are asked to drink extra fluids and water to relieve the bowels of the barium. Constipation or fecal impaction may occur if the barium isn't completely eliminated from the body. This diagnostic test is used for detecting dysphagia, hernia, peptic ulcer disease, GERD (Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease), achalasia, generalized epigastric pain and suspected perforation.


Dysphagia

Dysphagia is a swallowing disorder where patients feel a choking sensation on eating or drinking. There is a sensation of food being stuck in the throat or chest. The word is derived from the Greek word for disordered eating.

Dysphagia can be caused due to GERD, mouth cancer or esophageal cancer or even a stroke. Those suffering from Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple sclerosis, laryngitis and tonsillitis are more likely to suffer this condition. There is a risk of aspiration pneumonia, dehydration and airway obstruction. The patient coughs frequently and anything that is eaten escapes from the mouth or nose.


The patient is examined for swallowing assessment and detecting swallowing abnormalities. The back of the tongue, throat and larynx is examined with a flexible laryngoscope. Endoscopic examination of the esophagus and stomach is also done. A barium swallow helps capture the movement of food on swallowing. Food modification, surgery or physical modifications are resorted to.

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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: September 22, 2019