Adrenal Gland Tumor
The adrenal gland is located on the superior portion of the kidney. It produces some of the most important hormones associated with body metabolism. Many metabolic pathways depend upon the adrenal gland functionality through its hormone production. Some of the significant hormones produced by the adrenal gland include aldosterone, cortisol, sex hormones and adrenaline. The adrenal gland comprises two distinctive regions cortex and medulla respectively. Each region of the adrenal gland produces different kinds of hormones.
Adrenal insufficiency is a disorder predominantly associated with the dysfunction of the adrenal cortex region. The intensity of this disorder can be represented as primary or secondary depending upon the impaired adrenal cortex and its functionality. Studies imply that autoimmune diseases such as Addison's disease are the predominant cause for the adrenal sufficiency. In the secondary condition of this disorder, the production of adrenocortico tropic hormone is reduced to a greater extent. Although autoimmune disorders play a major role in the adrenal insufficiencies, other causes such as infectious diseases, vascular impairments, congenital disorders and also iatrogenic causes lead to adrenal insufficiencies. These factors predominantly influence the production of glucocorticoids.
The adrenal insufficiencies associated with mineralocorticoids are caused because of underlying conditions such as corticosterone methyl oxidase deficiency, impairments in the Zona glomerulosa and treatments such as heparin therapy. The recommended treatment for adrenal insufficiency is usually through hormonal therapy. Care must be taken while administering hormones as it may induce side effects such as obesity. Hydrocortisone is administered to treat adrenal insufficiencies.
Adrenal Pheochromocytoma is a condition in which tumors are formed on the adrenal gland. These tumors occur predominantly on one adrenal gland as an unilateral condition. The bilateral condition is found only in rare cases. These tumors occur together with other disorders such as endocrine neoplasia type 2. Majority of these pheochromocytomas are benign in origin and only a few cases develop malignancy.
The symptoms of adrenal Pheochromocytoma include headaches, palpitation, profuse sweating, glucose intolerance, heat sensitivity and decreased blood pressure. Since pheochromocytomas are associated with variations in blood pressure, the diagnosis of the respective underlying condition is done by the determination of products obtained from the breakdown of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Other tests include the glucagon stimulation test for monitoring the blood pressure and the clonidine suppression test to detect the presence of tumors which lower the catecholamines. Confirmatory tests are done using radiological determination through CT scan and MRI scans.
Pheochromocytoma is treated with blood pressure lowering drugs such as alpha adrenergic blockers and the tumors associated are surgically removed. Post-operative care such as transfusion of fluids is given to patients who experience weakness because of low blood pressure.
Adrenal tumors are generally categorized into functional and nonfunctional depending upon their type. Tumors associated with the adrenal cortex fall into the functional category whereas the remaining part of the adrenal gland secreting mixed hormones such as sex hormones and aldosterone fall under the nonfunctional category. Metastases associated with adrenal gland are more prominent in the determination of preexisting neoplasms and underlying adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal tumors of the benign non-functional origin are also caused by other conditions such as amyloidosis and granuloma. The malignant nonfunctional tumors are caused by conditions such as neuroblastoma and lymphoma.
Adrenal tumors are identified by a careful examination of the patient history followed by biochemical and radiological investigations. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is advised for pathological determination of the existing tumor. Surgical procedures such as laparoscopic adrenalectomy have produced good results in the removal of adrenal tumors.
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Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: January 30, 2023