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Bursitis

A bursa is located between the bones and tendons of a joint. Bursitis is a condition where any of the bursa in the body gets inflamed. This leads to inflammation and pain. In most cases, bursitis affects elbows, hips and shoulders. Some persons face bursitis in the knee or heel. Bursitis can occur due to injury, gout, arthritis or any rheumatic condition. In rare cases, bursitis can be traced to a staphylococcal infection. Repeated physical activity or trauma can bring on an attack of bursitis. Activities such as gardening, shoveling, tennis, golf and skiing can lead to development of bursitis.


Symptoms of bursitis include dull ache and stiffening of the affected joint and pain on movement. There may be redness on the skin around the inflamed bursa. X-rays indicate any calcification in the location. The affected area becomes tender and swollen. Any movement becomes painful and troublesome. Rest and immobilization of affected area usually gives relief from bursitis. Heat application often gives relief. Physical therapy and exercise also aid in relieving discomfort and pain associated with bursitis. NSAIDs can help in reducing inflammation. Corticosteroids may be prescribed for severe pain. Aspiration can be done at the location of the swelling to reduce inflammation. In rare cases, surgery is performed to remove the damaged bursa.

Rheumatism

Rheumatism is a term used to refer to a host of disorders dealing with the joints and connective tissues. Major rheumatic disorders include Osteoarthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, Rheumatoid arthritis and neck pain. Rheumatism can affect adults and adolescents. Rheumatic disorders cause chronic pain and are not easy to treat. Painkillers are prescribed to alleviate the pain associated with rheumatism. Other associated symptoms are stiffness of affected joints, soreness and worsening of pain in conditions of humidity and rains. There might be periods of relief and then flare ups called rheumatic attack. The affected joints become red and swell up and turn red and warm. Usually movement increases the pain.


Haglund's Deformity

Haglund's deformity is a bony growth along the posterior lateral border of the calcaneus or the heel bone surrounded by a tender tissue. Haglund's deformity primarily springs from bone enlargement at the back of the heel bone in the area where Achilles tendon attaches to the bone. Hence it is also called pump bump. It is also called as 'retro ocular bursitis and 'calcaneal exotosis'. Bursitis is an inflammation of the sacs (bursae) that contain small amounts of lubricating fluid to help the joints move smoothly. The syndrome is usually found to occur in females in their teens who often use high heels causing irritation of the rigid heel counter of the shoe rubbing up and down on the back of the heel bone. However, the deformity can also occur among runners and athletes. Common symptoms include red painful area in the back of the heel and swollen area at the back of the heel bone. There is irritation in the Achilles tendon. Repeated blistering on the back of the heel leads to callous formation.


Haglund's deformity is identified by physical examination and x rays. The doctor correlates the physical symptoms of redness and pain in the area with findings in x-ray studies, bone scans and MRI. Haglund's deformity can be present at birth or may be acquired by injury over the patient's lifetime. Shoe gear is the primary reason for Haglund deformity. Haglund's deformity can be caused by bursitis or pressure against the shoe.


The treatment for Haglund's deformity depends upon the severity and cause of the disease. During the initial stages when the disease is mild, applying ice followed by moist heat and compression will help ease discomfort from pump dump. Changing the type of shoes can stop the injury and consequent redness and swelling from developing. The pain can also be alleviated to some extent by placing a heel lift inside the shoe so as to lift the Haglund bump above the part of the heel counter of the shoe that rubs it. A doctor may also prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce pain. Soaking the foot may also soothe the area. In mild cases, a doctor may also recommend padding of the area. Normally corticosteroid injections are given to relieve the pain but for long term complication this injection cannot be recommended as it can weaken and cause rupture to the Achilles tendon. In severe cases of deformity, surgery may be necessary to remove or reduce the bony growth.

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Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: December 12, 2017