TargetWoman Condensed Health Information



Sedatives

Antihistamines

Antihistamines are widely used for allergies and motion sickness. As they exhibit properties that can indirectly induce drowsiness, there is a class of antihistamines, sold as OTC sleeping pills. However, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine warns that such pills should be used only occasionally. Beware that there is a price to pay for buying OTC antihistamines. Some OTC sedatives combine antihistamines with pain relievers and some combine it with alcohol.


They can induce abnormal muscle spasms. Other side effects are blurred vision, constipation, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, dry mouth and general dehydration. Therefore she needs to consume plenty of water if she is taking any antihistamine. In elders and children, antihistamines can cause nervousness and insomnia. Similarly, asthmatics should steer clear of antihistamines as these can aggravate their condition. They can affect the behavior of the fetus in the womb. Antihistamines also interfere with lactation. Be warned that OTC antihistamines should never be clubbed with alcohol or other sedatives.


Although it is construed that some antihistamines are non prescription sleep aids, and they are more sedating than prescription hypnotics, beware that their effectiveness may decrease over time. More importantly, OTC sedative is only meant for short-term insomnia and by and large the long term effectiveness and safety of the OTC drugs is questionable. However, for transient insomnia or insomnia based on illness or depression, antihistamines can be an effective OTC tool.


Sedative antihistamine list includes (the following list also contains suggested dosage for an adult. Always take the medications e.m.p (ex modo prescripto as directed by the physician):

  • Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton) 4 mg every 4 to 6 hrs; maximum dose: 24 mg/day

  • Cyproheptadine (Periactin) , 4 mg at bedtime

  • Clemastine (Tavist), 50-100 mg every 4-6 hours, not to exceed 400 mg/day and it is supplied in table form chewable

  • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), as a night sleep aid to be taken 30 minutes before bedtime, and the dosage is 50 mg for adults

  • Promethazine (Phenergan) Sedation: 25-50 mg orally or 50 mg rectally

  • Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril), oral sedation dosage 50-100 mg, IM 25-100 mg. Intravenous (IV), subcutaneous and intra-arterial administrations are not recommended as these can cause thrombosis and digital gangrene.


These come in various brand and trade names and they can be taken as tablets, syrups or nasal sprays. Droplet form for use in the eyes is also available. The effects of these antihistamines including drowsiness, dizziness, headache, loss of appetite, vision changes, irritability, dry mouth, stomach upset should subside, when the body begins to adjust with the medication. If these side effects continue, it is better to contact the medical practitioner. Sedative antihistamines may be taken with food and milk. Sustained release low acting tablets can be swallowed whole as chewing the sustained release long acting tablets may destroy the action and increase the side effects. Chewable tablets can be chewed thoroughly and swallowed. Suspensions should be shaken before food consumption.


Melatonin

This is a hormone produced by human body – by the pineal gland, a pea-sized structure at the center of the brain. This regulates sleep and wakefulness. Taken as a supplement, melatonin helps to reduce delayed sleep syndrome. This also improves sleep quality and lengthens the period of sleep. Day time alertness also seems to improve when this is taken. Melatonin can treat insomnia without altering the sleep pattern of the individual. It also does not impair any performance related skills.


This may help elders with insomnia as the amount of melatonin produced in the body seems to decrease as one gets older, although it is not recommended for chronic insomnia. Melatonin works on the circadian rhythm – the biological clock that regulates our sleep and wake cycles. Many become melatonin deficient due to age, work schedules and stress. Melatonin supplements are a quick way to adjust the lack of melatonin in the body and rebalance the sleep cycle. These are available OTC and when used in conjunction with herbs like chamomile and lemon balm, help lull the body to sleep acting as a true sedative.

Although Melatonin shows good effects for the treatment of insomnia, if used in excess, this sedative can produce side effects including sexual irregularities, mood swings and depression. Although by and large safe when used in moderation, it is unsafe for small children and pregnant women to use melatonin supplements. It is also not recommended for those with lymphoma, extreme allergies, depression, rheumatoid arthritis, auto immune diseases and for cancer patients. Some melatonin sedatives include:

  • clonazepam (Klonopin)

  • lorazepam (Ativan)

  • phenobarbital (Donnatal)

  • zolpidem (Ambien)


As such Melatonin can cause sleepiness and drowsiness, and if taken with sedatives that cause sleepiness, then too much of sleepiness can result. Research indicates that quick release Melatonin can be more effective than sustained-release formulations, especially when used as sedatives. Intramuscular injections of 20 mg of Melatonin are also available.


SAMe

This is also found naturally in the body. This OTC aid can not only help to sleep but also treats depression and chronic fatigue by promoting serotonin production in the body. Unless consumed in large quantities, SAMe has no known side effects.


Antidepressants used as sedatives

Although the FDA has not approved the use of antidepressants as sedatives, there are those who believe that insomnia is related to depression. As with any other medication for depression, there is a significant risk of suicidal thoughts particularly in adolescents and children. Approximate dosage of antidepressants s.o.s (si opus sit only if there is a need) :

Citalopram 20 mg
Escitalopram 5-10 mg
Fluvoxamine 100 mg
Fluoxetine 20 mg
Paroxetine 20 mg
Sertraline 50-75 mg
Venlafaxine 75 mg
Donormyl sleeping pills are available without prescription and they are approved by the FDA for non-prescription. They are used in the treatment of insomnia. 25 mg of Donormyl is the strongest non-prescription sleeping pill. Possible common side effects of antidepressant sedatives include diarrhea, dizziness, headache, insomnia, rash, vomiting, blurred vision, decreased appetite, cold symptoms, nervousness, cramps, hallucinations, hair loss and decreased coordination.


OTC sedatives side effects

Although OTC sedatives can be effective for an occasional sleepless night, the longer you take them, the less they are likely to make you sleepy. OTC sleep aids can leave you feeling groggy and unwell the next day. This is like the 'hangover' effect. Much remains unknown about the safety and effectiveness of OTC sleep aids.

Dizziness and forgetfulness, clumsiness, feeling off balance, dry mouth and throat are some common side effects. Serious risks of OTC sedatives include severe allergic reaction, facial swelling, memory lapses, hallucinations, suicidal tendencies, sleep-related complexities such as sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and sleep-eating. If any unusual sleep-related behavior is exhibited, consult the doctor immediately.


Over-the-counter sedative tips


  • Consult the doctor before taking OTC sedative, although you do not need the doctor concurrence to buy an OTC drug. This is because your doctor can make sure that the sedative does not interfere with other underlying medications.
  • Certain OTC drugs are not recommended for those with glaucoma, asthma, chronic pulmonary disorders, liver diseases and urinary retention.
  • Remember that OTC sedatives are only a temporary solution for insomnia and they are not intended to be used for longer than about two weeks.
  • Persistent insomnia is a symptom of an underlying medical or psychological problem. These cannot be cured with OTC sedatives. It is better to learn about safer and effective way of end sleepless nights.
  • Never mix alcohol with sedatives and this can increase the sedative effects of the medication.
  • Combining medications such as OTC sedatives and pain relievers and allergy medicines is very dangerous.
  • Do not drive or attempt any other activity that may require alertness while taking a sedative.
  • Over a period of time, you may build up intolerance to sedatives and this can in turn lead to more side effects.
  • You may also come to rely on sedatives and will be unable to sleep without them.

Antidepressants

Depression is a very common medical disorder that affects every 1 in 5 individual in the U.S. It is often said that depression results from chemical imbalance in the brain, either too little or too much of certain chemicals in the brain. Factors that lead to chemical imbalance could be one or a combination of recent events, past issues, genetic vulnerability, medications, medical problems etc.


Antidepressants, as the name suggests treat depressants. About 50% of people who take antidepressant find their depression symptoms halved. The first antidepressant drug was Imipramine (Tofranil). It was marketed in 1958. Today, there are close to 30 antidepressants that are grouped into five categories. Each has different chemical structures to treat moderate to severe depression.


Types of antidepressants

There are five main types of antidepressants. They differ in the neurotransmitters they affect.

1. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

2. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

3. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

4. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

5. Atypical antidepressants


Antidepressants - Types

Under these five types of antidepressants, there are around 30 antidepressant medicines. They are grouped based on how they work. Each antidepressant is different and affects different systems of the brain to different degrees. Considering the difference to be as small as 3-4%, it can have an enormous impact on an individual to alleviate depression symptoms.

Patients respond to antidepressants differently. Some may respond to or tolerate one antidepressant and not respond to or tolerate another antidepressant. Each antidepressant has different use, adverse effects and drug interactions. Prescription of anti-depressants is based on the symptoms, patient's age, family history, drug tolerance, side effects and past response to antidepressants.


Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

How MAOIs work: When depressed, the brain chemistry is impacted. The level of three neurotransmitters, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine is low. Collectively, these three are called monoamines. An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is linked to removing the three neurotransmitters from the brain.

Antidepressants such as MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase and allow more of the three neurotransmitters to remain in the brain. The levels of the chemicals rise. This elevates mood as there is improved brain cell communication.

MAOIs have been replaced by antidepressants that are far safer and cause fewer side effects. MAOIs carry the risk of considerable side effects and drug interactions.

The Food and Drug Administration has approved these MAOIs to treat depression.


  • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Selegiline (Emsam)
  • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

Of the four, Selegiline (Emsam) is a skin patch approved to treat major depressive disorder. The other three are available as oral medications.


Side effects of MAOIs

MAOIs carry the risk of considerable side effects and drug interactions. Hence, MAOIs are prescribed when other depressants fail to provide desired results.

Common side effects of MAOIs are dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea or constipation, headache, drowsiness, tiredness, weakness, insomnia, dizziness or lightheadedness, skin reaction at the patch site.

Other possible serious side effects include fainting, mental/mood changes, muscle stiffness, swollen ankles and legs, involuntary muscle jerks, shaking (tremor), low blood pressure, reduced sexual desire, sudden weight gain, eye pain, double/blurred vision, difficulty starting urine flow, muscle cramps, prickling or tingling sensation in the skin.


MAOIs interactions with other medicines

When two or more drugs interact, it can reduce the efficacy of the drug. Possibility of unexpected side effects is high. Knowing drug interactions is critical for your health. It is best to discuss with health care provider before taking MAOI anti-depressant medication.

MAOIs can cause serious reactions if taken with certain other drugs.

MAOI interaction with other antidepressants


  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Tetracyclic antidepressants
  • SSRIs
  • Other MAOIs
  • Serotonin antagonists
  • Mirtazapine
  • Venlafaxine

MAOI interaction with asthma medicines


  • Ephedrine and other asthma drugs
  • Inhalants with albuterol, metaproterenol or other beta-adrenegic bronchodilators
  • Theophylline

MAOIs interact with cold, cough, allergy, sinus, decongestant and hay fever medications. The medicines can be in the form of tablets, ointment, sprays or drops.

  • Antihistamines
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Ephedrine
  • Phenylephrine
  • Oxymetazoline
  • Phenylpropanolamine
  • Pseudoephedrine

MAOIs interaction with diabetes medicines


  • Insulin
  • Oral hypoglycemic agents.

MAOIs interaction with medicines to treat low blood pressure.


  • Dopamine
  • Epinephrine
  • Isoproterenol
  • Metaraminol
  • Methyldopa
  • Norepinephrine

MAOIs interaction with medicines to treat high blood pressure.


  • Guanadrel
  • Hydralazine
  • Methyldopa
  • Reserpine
  • Beta-blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Diuretics

MAOIs interaction with mood-stabilizer medicines


  • Carbamazepine
  • Lithium

MAOIs interaction with pain-killers and anesthetic medicines.


  • Anesthetics (general)
  • Anesthetics (local)
  • Cyclobenzaprine
  • Meperidine

MAOIs interaction with sedatives and tranquilizers


  • Alcohol
  • Barbiturates
  • Buspirone
  • Major tranquilizers
  • Minor tranquilizers
  • L-tryptophan

MAOIs interaction with stimulants and street drugs


  • Amphetamines
  • Benzedrine
  • Benzphetamine
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methylphenidate

MAOIs interaction with weight loss and appetite suppression medication

  • Cylert
  • Fenfluramine
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phentermine and OTC medications
  • Phenylpropanolamine

MAOIs interaction with other MAOI medicines

  • Caffeine (coffee, tea, soda and chocolate)
  • Disulfiram
  • L-dopa

MAOIs interaction with food and beverages

MAOIs with certain foods and beverages can cause dangerous interactions. It is best to consult your doctor for a complete list of foods and beverages to be abstained from. Take for example tyramine, an amino acid which occurs naturally in the body and helps regulate blood pressure. When MAOI is recommended, foods and beverages with tyramine should be restricted as it can quickly reach dangerous levels and spike blood pressure.


  • Foods with high levels of tyramine (an amino acid to regulate blood pressure) - Strong or aged cheese, cured meats, smoked or processed meats, sauces, soybeans and soybeans products, snow peas, broad beans and their pods, dried or overripe fruits, meat tenderizers, yeast-extract spreads, alcoholic beverages.
  • Protein rich fruits (avocados, fava beans, Italian green beans or snow peas, sauerkraut and canned figs)
  • Meat products
  • Fish products
  • Milk products
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Improperly stored foods or stale foods.

MAOIs are not the first choice

MAOIs are prescribed only when all the other anti-depressants don't work. It's mainly due to the 'cheese effect'. The connection is established. Yes, those who ate products containing cheese while on an MAOI experienced severe headaches. Further, MAOI is not recommended for children or teenagers.


MAOI is given to people:

  • When other antidepressants haven't worked
  • Who cannot tolerate the side effects of other antidepressants
  • Who have a family or personal history of using MAOI successfully
  • With unusual depression symptoms

MAOI and psychotherapy

MAOI works best when paired with some form of psychotherapy. An antidepressant alone would not suffice to meet the behavioral, emotional or underlying mental health issues. A qualified psychotherapist can help in coping with the condition.


SNRIs type of anti-depressant

How SNRIs work: Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors affect two important brain chemicals, serotonin and norepinephrine. Serotonin is regarded as a 'feel-good' chemical. It is associated with positive feelings of wellbeing. Norepinephrine is associated with alertness and energy. An imbalance can cause depression.

SNRIs block the reabsorption (recycling) of the neurotransmitters in the brain. Reabsorption is going back into the cells that released them. When reabsorption happens, the levels go down. When SNRIs block reabsorption, the levels of the two neurochemicals increase and helps improve and elevate mood, enhances the alertness of the person experiencing symptoms of depression.

This type of anti-depressant is also called dual reuptake inhibitors or dual-acting antidepressant as they affect two important brain chemicals-serotonin and norepinephrine. The Food and Drug Administration has approved these MAOIs to treat depression.


  • Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Khedezla)
  • Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
  • Levomilnacipran (Fetzima)
  • Venlafaxine (Effexor XR)

SNRIs interaction with other medications

Interactions between medicines can cause reactions which can be life-threatening. Before taking an anti-depressant, inform doctor of any/all medicines being taken. SNRIs interact with medicines like:

  • Warfarin (Coumadin, Marevan)
  • St.John's wort
  • MAOIs
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Triptans
  • Anticoagulants
  • Antihistamines
  • Alcohol
  • Theophyline
  • Codeine
  • Beta blocker medications for heart disease or high blood pressure
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Cisapride
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  • Thioridazine (Mellaril)
  • Terfenadine (Seldane)
  • Sumatriptin for migraine headaches
  • Ketoconazole
  • Trimadol
  • Other antidepressants

Besides some medicines, intake of certain substances as given below, can increase the toxicity of SNRIs.

  • Alcohol
  • Drugs that depress the central nervous system
  • Decongestants
  • Medications used for insomnia

Side effects of SNRIs

Compared to other types of anti-depressants, SNRIs have fewer side effects. In most cases, the side effects go away after few days or weeks of taking SNRIs. Anti-depressant medications take four to six weeks to start working.

It is always best to inform the doctor of any side effect if experienced while taking any antidepressant. While taking an anti-depressant, it is not necessary for the patient to experience all the side effects. It may be any one or a few of these side effects.


  • Mild nausea
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Pain related to abdominal cramps
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Excessive sweating
  • Sexual problems
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

Caution

Women who are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant and breastfeeding mothers should let the healthcare provider know while being prescribed an anti-depressant medication, including SNRIs.

Serotonin syndrome may occur when the levels of serotonin in the brain reaches high levels. It is triggered when an SNRI antidepressant is taken with another drug with high levels of serotonin (example – St.John's wort). Seek emergency medical help. The symptoms of severe serotonin level rise are very high fever, seizures, irregular heartbeat and unconsciousness.

Seek immediate medical attention, if while taking SNRIs, the patient:

1. Has abnormal bleeding

2. Has suicidal thoughts or behavior

3. Blood pressure levels rise (may increase when taking SNRIs)

4. Pressure of the fluid inside eye changes (narrow angle glaucoma)


Contraindication of SNRIs

Two SNRIs, namely Duloxetine and Milnacipran (approved to treat Fibromyalgia) is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled narrow angle or angle-closure glaucoma. SNRIs can cause liver problems, including hepatitis. SNRIs are not recommended for people with liver problems and kidney problems (renal failure).

There is a high possibility of SNRIs affecting activities requiring mental or motor concentration. At least for the first few days or till such time the patient is accustomed to the effect, it is best to have family or friends or paid support.


Tricylic antidepressants (TCAs)

Also known as cyclic antidepressants or TCAs, this type of antidepressant is best suited for patients and is prescribed by doctor only when other drugs have failed to treat depression. TCAs are similar to SNRIs. TCAs increase levels of norepinephrine and serotonin, the two neurotransmitters and block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter. By restoring the balance in the brain Tricyclic antidepressants alleviate depression.

FDA approved Tricyclic antidepressants are:


  • Amitriptyline
  • Amoxapine
  • Desipramine (Norpramin)
  • Doxepin (Silenor)
  • Imipramine (Tofranil)
  • Nortriptyline (Pamelor)
  • Protriptyline (Vivactil)
  • Trimipramine (Surmontil)

Besides these, Maprotiline is a Tetracyclic antidepressant that is FDA approved to treat depression.


Side effects of Tricyclic antidepressants

40% of people taking antidepressants have side effects. Initially in most cases, the side effects may cause problem but would improve with time. Benefits of treatment outweigh the initial problems.

Tricyclic antidepressants are associated with many side effects. This is a reason why doctors prescribe other antidepressants with fewer side effects. Side effects are due to the interference of tricyclic antidepressants with autoimmune nervous system. Common side effects of TCAs are:


  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Constipation
  • Problems passing urine
  • Feeling drowsy
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Sudden weight gain or weight loss
  • Excessive sweating at night
  • Skin rash
  • Palpitation (Fast heart rhythm)

It is best to seek medical attention if the person experiences symptoms like:


  • Trouble breathing
  • Swelling of face, lips, tongue or throat
  • Hives
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Agitation and restlessness
  • Seizures
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Nausea and vomiting

Drug interaction includes interaction of drugs with other drugs, interaction of drugs with food (drug-food interaction) and other substances. The interaction may increase or decrease the effectiveness of the drugs and/or its side effects. Sometimes, the interactions may lead to psychological sufferings.

Prior to starting treatment with any medication, including antidepressant, make a list of all the medications being taken and provide it to the health care provider.


  • MAOIs
  • Hypotensive agents (medicines used to treat blood pressure)
  • Central nervous system depressants like alcohol, sedatives or hypnotics and barbiturates
  • Anti psychotic agents
  • Cimetidine, SSRIs, SNRIs, levodopa, anticoagulants
  • Drugs that block acetylcholine
  • Clonidine
  • Sleeping pills
  • Pain killers
  • Tranquillizers
  • Antihypertensive medicines
  • Antihistamines
  • Antifungal medicines

Caution

While taking TCAs it is best not to drink alcohol, as it can add to the side effects. People who have seizures, difficulty urinating, glaucoma or heart conditions (coronary heart disease) the symptoms can get worse.


SSRIs or Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Of the different types of antidepressants for depression, SSRIs or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors are most commonly prescribed. SRIs are relatively safe and have fewer side effects.

SSRIs ease symptoms of moderate to severe depression by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is one of the chemicals (neurotransmitter) that help to relay messages from one area of the brain to another. Serotonin is believed to influence a variety of psychological and other body functions. An imbalance in serotonin levels may influence mood and lead to depression. Low brain cell production of serotonin, a lack of receptor sites to receive the serotonin that is made, inability of serotonin to reach the receptor sites, shortage of tryptophan – chemical from which serotonin is made, any of these can lead to depression.

SSRIs are designed to boost serotonin levels. This enables production of new brain cells which in turn allows the depression to ease. SSRIs are called selective as they primarily affect serotonin and not other transmitters. SSRIs approved by the FDA for the treatment of depression are:


  • Citalopram (Celexa)
  • Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  • Fluvoxamine (Luvox, Luvox CR)
  • Paroxetine (Paxil, Paxil CR)
  • Sertraline (Zoloft)

SSRIs and drug interaction

SSRIs are subject to extensive oxidative metabolism (a chemical process wherein oxygen is used to make energy from carbohydrates) in the liver. Drug interactions with SSRI are either due to overdosing of the drug combined.


  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Anti platelets (to prevent blood clots)
  • Theophylline (to treat asthma)
  • Medicines to treat Schizophrenia and psychosis
  • Medicines to treat severe depression and bipolar disorder
  • Medicines to treat migraines
  • Decongestants
  • Other antidepressants

Foods or substances to avoid while taking SSRIs

  • Alcohol
  • Diuretics
  • St.John's wort
  • Caffeine (Excessive consumption)
  • Grape fruit
  • Cheese (before or after taking pills)

SSRIs are not suitable for people with certain medical conditions. While an antidepressant medication is being prescribed, the health care provider should be informed if the patient has any of these medical conditions to weigh the benefits vs. risks.


  • Bipolar disorder
  • Hemophilia (Bleeding disorder)
  • Type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes
  • Epilepsy
  • Narrow angle glaucoma
  • Serious kidney, liver or heart problems

Side effects of SSRIs

The object of knowing side effects of any medication is to be aware of what to expect and to work out a strategy to continue medication and speed up recovery. Though SSRIs are the most commonly prescribed antidepressant, their side effects cannot be ignored.

All SSRIs tend to work in a similar way. But the active ingredient differs. Some people may experience side effects and some people may not. And even if experienced, common side effects of SSRIs are most likely to improve after few doses once the body adjusts to the medication. Talk to health care provider to know possible ways of reducing these side effects. For example, taking medication with food can reduce risk of nausea.


  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Insomnia
  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Pupil dilation
  • Restlessness
  • Nervousness
  • Dizziness
  • Diminished sexual desire
  • Erectile dysfunction in men
  • Difficulty achieving orgasm (men and women)

Caution

There are risks associated with taking any type of antidepressants during pregnancy. The medication does cross the placenta and are found in both amniotic fluid and breast milk. Associated risks are preterm birth, low birth weight, birth defects and delays in developmental milestones. The health care provider would recommend use of antidepressant during pregnancy based on the balance between risks and benefits. SSRIs have the best safety record. To treat depression during pregnancy SSRIs like Citalopram (Celexa), Fluoxetine (Prozac) and Sertraline (Zoloft) are recommended by health care providers.


Atypical antidepressants

How it works: Typically, these antidepressants do not fit into other types of antidepressants. Each atypical antidepressant is unique and works in a different way to treat depression. Atypical antidepressants are recommended for patients with major depression with inadequate responses or intolerable side effects during first-line treatment with SSRIs.

The link between the three main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain i.e. dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin and depression symptom is certain. Increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitter brings about specific symptoms which in turn suggest that depression can be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanism. Accordingly, doctors prescribe specific antidepressant drug that target symptoms-specific neurotransmitters to treat patient.

Atypical antidepressants work in this manner by effecting changes in brain chemistry. They change the levels of one or more neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. Changing the balance of these chemicals help brain cells send and receive messages, which in turn boosts mood and provide a sense of relaxation.

Atypical antidepressants approved by the FDA to treat depression are:

  • Bupropion (Brand name:Wellbutrin, Forfivo XL, Aplenzin)
  • Mirtazapine (Brand name: Remeron)
  • Nefazodone
  • Trazodone
  • Vortioxetine (Brand name: Trintellix)

Side effects of atypical antidepressants

Some patients may not experience any side effect. Those who experience can feel assured that it may go away after a time. In case it persists, the health care provider may prescribe a different medication. Each atypical antidepressant is unique, side effects too vary.


Bupropion
  • Anxiety
  • Restlessness or agitation
  • Confusion
  • Constipation
  • Dry mouth
  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • Increased and irregular heartbeat
  • Nausea
  • Sore throat
  • Tremor

Mirtazapine
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Dry mouth
  • Increased appetite
  • Increased cholesterol
  • Increased or decreased blood pressure
  • Low white blood cell count
  • Sleepiness
  • Weakness
  • Weight gain

Nefazodone
  • Blurred vision
  • Confusion
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Dry mouth
  • Headache
  • Low blood pressure
  • Nausea
  • Excessive sleep
  • Weakness

Trazodone
  • Excessive sleep
  • Headache
  • Dry mouth
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Insomnia
  • Low blood pressure
  • Feeling confused
  • Blurred vision
  • Irregular heartbeat

Caution

Atypical antidepressants can cause some problems in some circumstances. While atypical antidepressant is prescribed for treatment of depression, the patient should inform the healthcare provider of any health issues and related medicines being taken.


  • Women who are pregnant or planning pregnancy should discuss the risks/benefits of taking atypical antidepressant. Never stop the medication suddenly and without informing the doctor as it poses great risks.

  • Seek immediate medical attention if symptoms related to Serotonin syndrome occurs. When two medications that affect an increase in serotonin are combined, it can lead to Serotonin Syndrome. Symptoms include anxiety, agitation, sweating, confusion, tremors, restlessness, lack of coordination and a rapid heartbeat.

  • Drinking alcohol or using illegal drugs while taking antidepressant medication may decrease the benefits, worsen the condition and increase adverse effects of the medication.

  • Atypical antidepressant Bupropion should be avoided by patients with seizure disorder or an eating disorder like bulimia or anorexia.

  • Mirtazapine is not approved for use in children. Also, Mirtazapine increases cholesterol levels.

  • Nefazodone can aggravate liver disease.

  • Trazodone is to be avoided by people with heart related ailments.

  • Vortioxetine is linked to risk of bleeding.

Atypical antidepressant - Drug and food interaction

Certain drugs or substances may increase blood levels and toxicity.


Bupropion
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs for insomnia
  • SSRIs
  • TCAs
  • MAOIs
  • Beta Blockers
  • Anti arrhythmic drugs
  • Levodopa

Duloxitine
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs for insomnia
  • Anti arrhythmic drugs
  • Phenothiazines
  • TCAs
  • MAOIs
  • Warfarin
  • Fluvoxamine
  • Fluoxetine
  • Paroxetine
  • Rdioquin
  • Quinolone antibiotics

Mirtazapine
  • drugs taken for insomnia
  • TCAs
  • Thyroid medication
  • Phenothiazines and Benzodiazepines

Nefazodone
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs for insomnia
  • Buspirone
  • Carbamazepine
  • Cisapride
  • Cyclosporine
  • Digoxin
  • Pimozide
  • Thioridazine
  • Triazolam
  • St.John's wort
  • SSRIs
  • TCAs
  • Drugs that lead to abnormal heart rhythms
  • Drugs to treat high cholesterol
  • Buspirone
  • Sibutramine
  • Sumatriptan
  • Drugs for migraine headache

Trazodone
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs taken for insomnia
  • Clonidine
  • Digoxin
  • MAOIs
  • Phenytoin
  • Warfarin
  • Antifungal agents
  • Carbamazepine
  • Phenothiazines
  • Ritonavir
  • SSRIs
  • St.John's wort
  • Drugs that cause abnormal heart rhythms

Venlafaxine
  • Clozapine
  • Desipramine
  • Haloperidol
  • Indinavir
  • SSRIs
  • Warfarin
  • Cimetidine
  • MAOIs
  • St.John's wort

Popular Topics
Check all your health queries

Diseases, Symptoms, Tests and Treatment arranged in alphabetical order:

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Free Health App
Free Android Health App Free WebApp for iPhones


Bibliography / Reference

Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: July 21, 2018