Diabetic Neuropathy is a nerve disorder caused by acute diabetes. Those suffering from diabetes for more than 20 years are more likely to suffer diabetes neuropathy. Abnormal blood fat levels along with long durations of diabetes are the usual cause of diabetic neuropathy. This condition manifests as weakness and numbness in the limbs. It can also affect the heart, digestive tract and genitals. Peripheral neuropathy is the most common manifestation of diabetic neuropathy wherein the limbs of the patient are affected. Autonomic neuropathy affects digestion, bowel and bladder function, sexual response and perspiration. There might be adverse effects on the heart and blood pressure. Focal neuropathy affects a single nerve in the wrist, thigh or foot. It can also affect the nerves controlling the eye muscles. Smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol may further increase the risk of diabetic neuropathy.
Patients suffering from promimal neuropathy experience pain the hips and thighs and weakness in the legs. Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include numbness and tingling in the feet, legs and arms. There may be dizziness due to drop in postural blood pressure. Diarrhea, constipation and indigestion are common symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy may have erectile dysfunction or vaginal dryness. Treatment for diabetic neuropahty has to be individualized. Acupuncture or medications can relieve pain in the case of peripheral neuropathy. Persons suffering from diabetes must monitor blood sugar levels. Any foot problems must be attended to promptly.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood sugar. Referred to as diabetes, this disease affects millions worldwide. Left untreated, diabetes can lead to blindness, diabetic neuropathy and kidney failure. Diabetes is most often a chronic medical condition that needs constant monitoring and control. Diabetes can be of 2 types - Type 1 and diabetes type 2. Type 1 diabetes is called juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Complications that can arise with Type 1 diabetes are hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Left untreated, it can lead to ketoacidosis.
Often this type of diabetes is inherited. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is seen in children and young adults. A person suffering from diabetes type 1 is insulin dependent. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is characterized by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. This can occur due to an auto immune condition or it can also be idiopathic in nature. Insulin is critical to the absorption of sugar by the body. As a result, blood and urine levels of sugar rise. Type 1 diabetes also affects fat metabolism. While most cases of type 1 diabetes have a genetic predisposition, certain environmental factors trigger it off.
Symptoms of diabetes type 1 are excessive thirst and urination. Other symptoms include blurred vision, dramatic weight loss, irritability, weakness and fatigue. Diabetes mellitus type 1 leads to excessive hunger. Girls may notice vaginal yeast infection. A doctor may prescribe changes in eating habits and maintenance of body weight. Regular exercise regimen is suggested to keep diabetes under check. Daily dose of insulin is needed for persons who suffer type 1 diabetes. Persons suffering from this form of diabetes are advised to monitor blood levels of sugar as well as urine levels of ketone.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or non-insulin dependent diabetes is more commonly noticed. This is caused due to insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas or when the body is unable to regulate the amount of glucose in the blood. Complications of type 2 diabetes include coronary heart disease, renal failure, diabetic neuropathy and failing eyesight. Diabetes Type 2 is also referred to as late-onset diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 develops when the patient's body becomes insulin-resistant. Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes include blurred vision, weight loss and excessive thirst and fatigue. Yeast infection and fungal infections are common. Weight reduction can go a long way in maintaining blood sugar levels. Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Sedentary lifestyle and obesity also increase a person's chances of diabetes type 2. Often this type of diabetes is hereditary. Persons with excessive abdominal fat are more prone to developing diabetes type 2. Hypertension and high blood cholesterol increases a person's risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.
Blood tests for glucose tolerance help in detecting diabetes mellitus type 2. In some cases, patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 are able to control their condition with diet and exercise. Follow a diet that is low in saturated fat, salt and sugar. Instead opt for high fiber vegetables and fruits. Antidiabetic medications (sulphonylureas) are prescribed for diabetic patients to increase the production of insulin and improve its efficiency. These include glibenclamide and glipizide. Insulin injections are resorted to when all these measures fail to reduce blood sugar levels.
Bibliography / Reference
Collection of Pages - Last revised Date: December 13, 2017